Pheromone Traps

Pheromones are sex attractants. Adult female insect which are ready for mating emit species specific chemical odor to attract males. These specific chemicals called Pheromones are synthesized and used for insect pest management in crops. The pheromones can be used for monitoring, mass trapping or mating disruption.

Monitoring: Installation of this type pheromone lure will give information on the incidence and intensity of pests. Based on this information, it will be possible to take up appropriate plant protection strategy.

Mass Trapping: This type of pheromones can be used to trap the target pests. The majorities of females present in the field are remain unmated and many times lay infertile eggs. This reduce the population of insects

Mating Disruption: The pheromones of this type give wrong signals for mating. This result in attracting insects which could not mate. As a result there is reduction in multiplication of insect.

Pheromone lures available for

Storage

Lures may be stored under refrigerated condition. Traps may be stored in cool or dry places.

Precaution

Specific lure can be used for specific species only.

Packing

1Lure/Pack hermitically sealed. To be opened only at the time of using 1set/pack.

 

Helicoverpa armigera

Adults are typically brown to grayish brown with a series of dark, irregular, transverse lines across the front wing. nocturnal in habit, flying, mating, and laying eggs at dusk. The eggs are laid under leaves, on buds; eggs are hemispherical, and creamy white. Each moth lays 700-3000 eggs, eggs hatch in 3-4 days. Larval colour green to pink-brown or black. 3 weeks are required for the full development of larvae; fully-grown larvae are about 35-40 mm long. Pupation takes place in soil & it takes 10-12 days. The pupae are dark brown.

Damage Young larvae feed on the surface tissue. They cause damage to the host plant by feeding on the buds, fruiting parts, seed pods and fruits. Larvae damage by boring into fruit and feed on the inner content of the fruit.

 

Spodoptera litura

The adults are brown in coloure. The moths are nocturnal and strongly attracted by light. It lays eggs in a cluster of 20-400, a single female can lay 2000 eggs. The eggs hatch in 3-4 days, the young larvae (caterpillars) pale green in colour, older larvae are gray in coloure with black & white marking. There is always a white dot on each side of the second and third segments of the body from the head. The caterpillar will fully grown in 20-40 days, for pupation the fully-grown larvae burrow itself a short distance into the soil. It pupates in the soil within 17-24 days & the adults come out. The life cycle is completed within 43-63 days.

Damage : Newly- hatched larvae feed on the foliage of beans, but older individuals eat entire leaves and may severely damage buds and flowers. Among the pod borers Spodeptera luthera is major & it dose maximum damage.

 

Earias vittella

Description: Earias vittella is a nocturnal insect. The adult moth measures 13 – 15mm long with wing expanse 30 – 34mm, A female bollworm lays 65 - 695 eggs. The eggs are laid on buds and flowers and occasionally on fruits and shoot tips. The eggs hatched into larvae within 3 – 9 days. The full-grown caterpillar measures 18 – 24mm. The Earias vittella complete its life cycle in month and thus it has 12 generations in a year.

Damage: The larvae bore into the tender shoots and tunnel downwards. The infested shoots wither (dry) & droop down and ultimately the growing points are killed. The caterpillars then bore into the buds and fruits and feed inside them. The damaged buds and flowers wither (dry) and fall down. The affected fruits have bores seen externally; they decay inside, become deformed in shape and remain stunted in growth.

 

Leucinodes orbonalis

Leucinodes orbonalis is the highly destructive pest of the Brinjal crop. The adults are white moths having a brown spots on wing. Female lays 10-60 eggs, the eggs are creamy white. The female lays eggs late at night or early in the morning. It lays eggs on the lower surface of leaves, on shoot, flower buds and near fruit peduncle. The larvae are dark white and becomes light rose with ages. The full-grown larvae measure 15 - 18 mm. The larvae comes out from the infested shoots and fruits for pupation. The incubation period is 3-5 days, larval period is 12-15 days and pupal period is 7 - 10 days during summer, while it is extended with few days during winter season.

Damage: This is the most serious pest of eggplant. The larva starts infesting plant from its very young stage and continues up to the last day of the crop’s life. In the early stage of crop the larvae bore into the young shoots, petioles and midribs of the leaves. Due to this the infested shoots droop down. In the reproductive phase of the crop the larvae bore into the flower buds and fruits. The infested flower buds drop and fruits show the sign of infestation. The larvae often make tunnels inside the fruit and make the fruit unfit for consumption.

 

Bactrocera cucurbitae

Cucurbit fruit flies attack several cucurbit crops like bitter gourd, snake gourd, herkins and cucumber. It is a very actively flying insect, which is light brown in colour. The female adults visit developing fruits and insert their eggs into the fruits. The eggs hatch inside the fruit into maggots (worms) which feed on the flesh (pulp) of the fruit. The infested fruits fall down before full ripening. The fruit flies cause considerable loss (often 20- 40 %) in the yield of marketable fruits.

Use of Traps for cucurbit fruit fly control

Since the spraying of chemical insecticides to protect the fruits from pests is not desirable, this trap is recommended as an environmentally safe and cost- effective alternative for fruit fly control. It is based on the principle that an attractant (cue lure) is used as lure for the adult fruit fly males. The attracted adult fruit flies are trapped and killed.

Cue lure attractant:

Cue lure is impregnated in plywood blocks at 6 ml per block. This block is suspended inside the trap through a hook from the top lid of the trap.

Direction for use the trap:

  • Remove the foil and suspend the lure block inside the trap.
  • Hang the trap in the trellis of cucurbit crops at about 3-5 feet from the ground.
  • Check the traps weekly by opening the bottom lid, count (if needed) and then discard the trapped and dead flies.
  • Arrange to replace the lure block which will be effective for about 5-6 weeks.

 

Bactrocera dorsalis fruit fly

The adults variable in colours, but mostly yellow with dark markings on the thorax and abdomen. Females begin to lay eggs about 8 days after emergence from the puparium. Female lays (insert) their eggs under the skin of fruit in cluster of 10- 50. Under optimum conditions, a female can lay more than 3,000 eggs during her lifetime, but under field conditions approximately 1,200 to 1,500 eggs per female is considered to be the usual production. Ripe fruit are preferred for egg laying, but immature ones may be also attacked. The eggs hatch in 1-1.5 days. The larvae are legless white. There are 3 larval stages, or instars. The larval stage lasts for 11-15 days. The mature larvae drop to ground pupate in the soil, the adult emerge in about 10 days.

Damage: Larval feeding in fruits is the most damaging. Damage usually consists of breakdown of tissues and internal rotting associated with maggot infestation, Infested young fruit becomes distorted and usually drop; mature attacked fruits develop a water soaked appearance. The larval tunnels provide entry points for bacteria and fungi that cause the fruit to rot. Melon fly, are infrequently found in papaya. Infestation rates in papaya by fruit flies increases with ripeness of the fruits.

 

Oryctes rhinoceros

Oryctes rhinoceros is one of the most serious destructive pests of the coconut palm Areca & other palm. Though, for the most part, coconut palms are considered agricultural crops, Each adult female lays 3 or 4 clutches, with about 30 eggs per clutch, in logs or other concentrations of organic material over a period of 9 to 12 weeks. Eggs incubate 11 days, and, under favorable conditions, the first feeding of the adult will occur 17 weeks later.

Life Cycle: Eggs are laid and larvae develop in decaying logs or stumps, piles of decomposing vegetation or sawdust, or other or ganic matter. Eggs hatch in 8-12 days, and larvae feed and grow for another 82-207 days before entering an 8-13 day nonfeeding prepupal stage. Pupae are formed in a cell made in the wood or in the soil beneath where the larvae feed. The pupal stage lasts 17-28 days. Adults remain in the pupal cell 17-22 days before emerging and flying to palm crowns to feed. The beetles are active at night and hide in feeding or breeding sites during the day. Most mating takes place at the breeding sites. Adults may live 4-9 months and each female lays 50-100 eggs during her lifetime.

Damage: Coconut rhinoceros beetle adults damage palms by bor ing into the center of the crown, where they injure the young, growing tissues and feed on the exuded sap. As they bore into the crown, they cut through the developing leaves. When the leaves grow out and unfold, the damage appears as V-shaped cuts in the fronds or holes through the midrib.